Countries at risk of Modern Slavery (High risk)

We are extra vigilant when it comes to assessing the Happy Worker guarantee for brands manufacturing in countries at risk of modern slavery.

A list of all high risk countries can be found at the bottom of this article. 

What is Modern Slavery?

“Modern slavery refers to situations of exploitation that a person cannot refuse or leave because of threats, violence, coercion, deception, or abuses of power. It takes many forms and is known by many names — forced labour, forced marriage, debt bondage, sexual exploitation, human trafficking, slavery-like practices, forced or servile marriage, and the sale and exploitation of children”. (Global Slavery Index 2023, Walk Free) pg8

Key Stats from the Global Slavery Index 2023, Walk Free:

  • G20 countries are importing more than $468 billion worth of products at risk of forced labour.
  • Clothing production has almost doubled in the past 15 years alone, and today G20 countries are collectively importing US$148 billion worth of apparel goods and US$13 billion worth of textiles at risk of being produced by forced labour every year. 
  • Of the top 5 highest ranking industries for at risk imports, textiles ranks 5th and garments ranks 2nd.

Which countries are considered high-risk?

  • Bangladesh
  • Bulgaria
  • Cambodia
  • China
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Malaysia
  • Myanmar (this is a banned manufacturing country on W&B)
  • North Macedonia
  • Pakistan
  • Romania
  • Sri Lanka
  • Thailand
  • Tunisia
  • Türkiye
  • Vietnam


What do I need to provide if I manufacture in a high risk country?

We are extra vigilant when it comes to assessing brands who manufacture in high risk countries. We prefer brands manufacturing in these countries to have audits or third party certifications to confirm working conditions, especially when the brand has not been able to visit the facility or works with a factory, of 50 workers or more. 

However, we recognise for small studio brands (30 workers or fewer) that often audits and certifications are not accessible. In these cases, we require the brand to supply evidence of the due diligence undertaken to ensure no human rights violations are occuring in your manufacturing facility. Please see our Happy Worker guide for more information on what to provide. 


Labour Behind The Label

Clean Clothes Campaign